Shale is radioactive – and that means fracking it brings radioactive materials to the surface. As previously discussed, shale is the most radioactive sedimentary layer – to find shale, you look for radiation in a gamma ray well log. If shale was not radioactive, we would not be able to find it. Drilling through it horizontally simply increases the amount of radioactive material exposed. Fracking the shale leaches the radioactive material out and transports it to the surface as flowback. Drill bits bring it back as drill cuttings. Which means that frack waste is not only laced with harmful pollutants – it’s radioactive as well – literally thousands of times more radioactive than is safe for humans and other life forms. So horizontally fracking shale solution-mines radium as a by-product. Recycled and processed frack flowback and drill cuttings are already too radioactive for the disposal wells in Ohio to take. These hazards are detailed in a new study co-authored by my pal Dr. Ron Bishop.